Tuesday, October 11, 2016

Rpi zero composite out.

So you've got your Pi Zero, but you don't have an HDMI monitor! The Pi Zero has a composite video out port which is very easy to access, and we're going to show you how!  You'll need a few bits and pieces, including a soldering iron to solder some headers on:

We're going to be soldering two pin headers onto the Pi Zero, circled in red and labeled TV in the picture below

So, go ahead an solder your pin headers on! You can of course solder wires directly to the board if you'd like, but headers are neater (and their connection subsequently removable).

Now get your RCA connector, and plug the two male ends into the two screw terminals. Again, you can use wire for this, but male pins are probably neater.

Now we can plug the female end of the jumper wires into our Zero.
Polarity should always be "Positive" (+) of the RCA connector, to the pin labelled "TV" on the Raspberry Pi. In this case, it is our white jumper wire.

The Pi should automatically switch the output method depending on what you have plugged in, e.g. if you have no HDMI plugged in, and you connect the RCA, it should output via RCA. However, if you've pre-configured your system (for example on another Pi) it may not work.
If it doesn't work off the bat, you'll need to edit the Pi's config.txt file to force video output via RCA.
So, open up your Pi's config.txt file, you can do this in terminal using the command:
sudo nano /boot/config.txt
There are two lines you need to edit.
First, you need to REMOVE the comment # from the line
So it should look like this:
Next, you need to ADD a comment # to the line
So it should look like this:
Check the lines highlighted in red in the images below for clarification.



Remember to save the config file when you exit!
That's it! You can now plug the Zero into your RCA/composite video and it should output on that channel!

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Raspberry Pi resolution.

Thoughts on resolution setup.

Originally 320x200

# uncomment this if your display has a black border of unused pixels visible
# and your display can output without overscan
 # uncomment to force a console size. By default it will be display's size minus
# overscan.


As it's an embedded platform, the Raspberry Pi doesn't have a BIOS like you'd find on a conventional PC. The various system configuration parameters, which would traditionally be edited and stored using a BIOS, are stored in an optional text file named config.txt. This is read by the GPU before the ARM CPU and Linux are initialised, therefore it must be located on the first (boot) partition of your SD card, alongside bootcode.bin and start.elf. This file is normally accessible as /boot/config.txt from Linux and must be edited as root, but from Windows or OS X it's seen as a file in the only accessible part of the card. If you need to apply some of the config settings below, but you don't have a config.txt on your boot partition yet, then simply create it as a new text file.
Any changes will only take effect after you've rebooted your Raspberry Pi. After Linux has booted you can get the current active settings with the following commands:
vcgencmd get_config <config> - displays a specific config value, e.g. vcgencmd get_config arm_freq.
vcgencmd get_config int - lists all the integer config options that are set (non-zero).
vcgencmd get_config str - lists all the string config options that are set (non-null).
Note that there's a small number of config settings that can't be retrieved using vcgencmd.

File format

As config.txt is read by the early-stage boot firmware it has a very simple file format. The format is a single property=value statement on each line, where value is either an integer or a string. Comments may be added, or existing config values may be commented out and disabled, by starting a line with the # character.
Here is an example file:
# Force the monitor to HDMI mode so that sound will be sent over HDMI cable
# Set monitor mode to DMT
# Set monitor resolution to 1024x768 XGA 60Hz (HDMI_DMT_XGA_60)
# Make display smaller to stop text spilling off the screen



GPU memory in megabytes. Sets the memory split between the CPU and GPU; the CPU gets the remaining memory. Minimum value is 16; maximum value is 192, 448 or 944, depending on whether you're using a 256M, 512MB or 1024MB Pi. The default value is 64.
Setting gpu_mem to low values may automatically disable certain firmware features, as there are some things the GPU simply can't do with too little memory. So if a certain feature you're trying to use isn't working, try setting a larger GPU memory split.
Using gpu_mem_256, gpu_mem_512 and gpu_mem_1024 allows you to swap the same SD card between 256MB, 512MB and 1024MB Pis without having to edit config.txt each time:


GPU memory in megabytes for the 256MB Raspberry Pi (ignored if memory size is not 256MB). This overrides gpu_mem. The maximum value is 192 and the default is not set.


GPU memory in megabytes for the 512MB Raspberry Pi (ignored if memory size is not 512MB). This overrides gpu_mem. The maximum value is 448 and the default is not set.


GPU memory in megabytes for the 1024MB Raspberry Pi 2 (ignored if memory size is not 1024MB). This overrides gpu_mem. The maximum value is 944 and the default is not set.


Setting this to 1 disables the CPU's access to the GPU's L2 cache; requires a corresponding L2 disabled kernel. Default value is 0.


Setting this to 1 disables adjusting the refresh rate of RAM every 500ms; this action measures the RAM's temperature. Default value is 0.

CMA - Dynamic memory split

The firmware and kernel as of 19th November 2012 supports CMA (Contiguous Memory Allocator), which means the memory split between CPU and GPU is managed dynamically at runtime. However, this is not officially supported.
You can find an example config.txt here.


When the GPU has less than cma_lwm (low-watermark) megabytes of memory available, it will request some from the CPU.


When the GPU has more than cma_hwm (high-watermark) megabytes of memory available, it will release some to the CPU.
The following options need to be in cmdline.txt for CMA to work:
coherent_pool=6M smsc95xx.turbo_mode=N



Setting this to 1 prevents the red camera LED from turning on when recording video or taking a still picture. Useful for preventing reflections when the camera is facing a window.

Onboard analogue audio (3.5mm jack)

The onboard audio output has a few config options that alter the behaviour of how the analogue audio is driven and whether some firmware features are enabled or not.


By default, a 1.0LSB dither is applied to the audio stream if it's routed to the analogue audio output. This can create audible background "hiss" in some situations, such as if the ALSA volume is set to a low level. Set this to 1 to disable dither application.


Adjust the bit depth of the analogue audio output. The default bit depth is 11. Selecting bit depths below 8 will result in nonfunctional audio - settings below 8 result in a PLL frequency too low to support. Generally only useful as a demonstration of how bit depth affects quantisation noise.


Composite video mode options


Defines the TV standard used for composite video output over the yellow RCA jack; the default value is 0.
sdtv_mode result
0 Normal NTSC
1 Japanese version of NTSC – no pedestal
2 Normal PAL
3 Brazilian version of PAL – 525/60 rather than 625/50, different subcarrier


This defines the aspect ratio for composite video output. The default value is 1.
sdtv_aspect result
1 4:3
2 14:9
3 16:9


Setting this to 1 disables colour burst on composite video output. The picture will be displayed in monochrome, but it may possibly be sharper.

HDMI mode options


Setting this to 1 uses "safe mode" settings to try to boot with maximum HDMI compatibility. This is the same as setting the following parameters:


Setting this to 0xa5000080 enables the ignoring of EDID/display data if your display doesn't have an accurate EDID. It requires this unusual value to ensure that it doesn't get triggered accidentally.


Setting this to 1 will cause the GPU to read EDID data from the edid.dat file, located in the boot partition, instead of reading it from the monitor. More information is available here.


Setting this to 1 pretends that all audio formats are supported by the display, allowing passthrough of DTS/AC3 even when not reported as supported.


Setting this to 1 pretends that all audio formats are unsupported by the display. This means ALSA will default to the analogue audio (headphone) jack.


Setting this to 1 pretends that all CEA modes support 3D, even when the EDID doesn't indicate support for them.


Setting this to 1 avoids "fuzzy matching" of modes described in the EDID. Instead, it will pick the standard mode with the matching resolution and closest framerate, even if blanking is wrong.


Setting this to 1 will prevent the initial active source message being sent during bootup. This avoids bringing a CEC-enabled TV out of standby and channel switching when rebooting your Raspberry Pi.


Setting this to 1 pretends that CEC is not supported at all by the TV. No CEC functions will be supported.


Force the pixel encoding mode. By default, it will use the mode requested from the EDID, so it shouldn't need changing.
hdmi_pixel_encoding result
0 default (RGB limited for CEA, RGB full for DMT)
1 RGB limited (16-235)
2 RGB full (0-255)
3 YCbCr limited (16-235)
4 YCbCr full (0-255)


This allows you to choose between HDMI and DVI output modes.
hdmi_drive result
1 Normal DVI mode (No sound)
2 Normal HDMI mode (Sound will be sent if supported and enabled)


Configures the signal strength of the HDMI interface; the default value is 0 and the maximum is 7. Try 4 if you have interference issues with HDMI.


This defines the HDMI output group to be either CEA (Consumer Electronics Association, the standard typically used by TVs) or DMT (Display Monitor Timings, the standard typically used by monitors). This setting should be used in conjunction with hdmi_mode.
hdmi_group result
0 Auto-detect from EDID


This, together with hdmi_group, defines the HDMI output format.
For setting a custom display mode not listed here, see this thread.
These values are valid if hdmi_group=1 (CEA):
hdmi_mode resolution frequency notes
1 VGA (640x480)

2 480p 60Hz
3 480p 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
4 720p 60Hz
5 1080i 60Hz
6 480i 60Hz
7 480i 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
8 240p 60Hz
9 240p 60Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
10 480i 60Hz pixel quadrupling
11 480i 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
12 240p 60Hz pixel quadrupling
13 240p 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
14 480p 60Hz pixel doubling
15 480p 60Hz pixel doubling, 16:9 aspect ratio
16 1080p 60Hz
17 576p 50Hz
18 576p 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
19 720p 50Hz
20 1080i 50Hz
21 576i 50Hz
22 576i 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
23 288p 50Hz
24 288p 50Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
25 576i 50Hz pixel quadrupling
26 576i 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
27 288p 50Hz pixel quadrupling
28 288p 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
29 576p 50Hz pixel doubling
30 576p 50Hz pixel doubling, 16:9 aspect ratio
31 1080p 50Hz
32 1080p 24Hz
33 1080p 25Hz
34 1080p 30Hz
35 480p 60Hz pixel quadrupling
36 480p 60Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
37 576p 50Hz pixel quadrupling
38 576p 50Hz pixel quadrupling, 16:9 aspect ratio
39 1080i 50Hz reduced blanking
40 1080i 100Hz
41 720p 100Hz
42 576p 100Hz
43 576p 100Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
44 576i 100Hz
45 576i 100Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
46 1080i 120Hz
47 720p 120Hz
48 480p 120Hz
49 480p 120Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
50 480i 120Hz
51 480i 120Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
52 576p 200Hz
53 576p 200Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
54 576i 200Hz
55 576i 200Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
56 480p 240Hz
57 480p 240Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
58 480i 240Hz
59 480i 240Hz 16:9 aspect ratio
In the table above, the modes with a 16:9 aspect ratio are a widescreen variant of a mode which usually has 4:3 aspect ratio. Pixel doubling and quadrupling indicates a higher clock rate, with each pixel repeated two or four times respectively.
These values are valid if hdmi_group=2 (DMT):
hdmi_mode resolution frequency notes
1 640x350 85Hz
2 640x400 85Hz
3 720x400 85Hz
4 640x480 60Hz
5 640x480 72Hz
6 640x480 75Hz
7 640x480 85Hz
8 800x600 56Hz
9 800x600 60Hz
10 800x600 72Hz
11 800x600 75Hz
12 800x600 85Hz
13 800x600 120Hz
14 848x480 60Hz
15 1024x768 43Hz incompatible with the Raspberry Pi
16 1024x768 60Hz
17 1024x768 70Hz
18 1024x768 75Hz
19 1024x768 85Hz
20 1024x768 120Hz
21 1152x864 75Hz
22 1280x768
reduced blanking
23 1280x768 60Hz
24 1280x768 75Hz
25 1280x768 85Hz
26 1280x768 120Hz reduced blanking
27 1280x800
reduced blanking
28 1280x800 60Hz
29 1280x800 75Hz
30 1280x800 85Hz
31 1280x800 120Hz reduced blanking
32 1280x960 60Hz
33 1280x960 85Hz
34 1280x960 120Hz reduced blanking
35 1280x1024 60Hz
36 1280x1024 75Hz
37 1280x1024 85Hz
38 1280x1024 120Hz reduced blanking
39 1360x768 60Hz
40 1360x768 120Hz reduced blanking
41 1400x1050
reduced blanking
42 1400x1050 60Hz
43 1400x1050 75Hz
44 1400x1050 85Hz
45 1400x1050 120Hz reduced blanking
46 1440x900
reduced blanking
47 1440x900 60Hz
48 1440x900 75Hz
49 1440x900 85Hz
50 1440x900 120Hz reduced blanking
51 1600x1200 60Hz
52 1600x1200 65Hz
53 1600x1200 70Hz
54 1600x1200 75Hz
55 1600x1200 85Hz
56 1600x1200 120Hz reduced blanking
57 1680x1050
reduced blanking
58 1680x1050 60Hz
59 1680x1050 75Hz
60 1680x1050 85Hz
61 1680x1050 120Hz reduced blanking
62 1792x1344 60Hz
63 1792x1344 75Hz
64 1792x1344 120Hz reduced blanking
65 1856x1392 60Hz
66 1856x1392 75Hz
67 1856x1392 120Hz reduced blanking
68 1920x1200
reduced blanking
69 1920x1200 60Hz
70 1920x1200 75Hz
71 1920x1200 85Hz
72 1920x1200 120Hz reduced blanking
73 1920x1440 60Hz
74 1920x1440 75Hz
75 1920x1440 120Hz reduced blanking
76 2560x1600
reduced blanking
77 2560x1600 60Hz
78 2560x1600 75Hz
79 2560x1600 85Hz
80 2560x1600 120Hz reduced blanking
81 1366x768 60Hz
82 1920x1080 60Hz 1080p
83 1600x900
reduced blanking
84 2048x1152
reduced blanking
85 1280x720 60Hz 720p
86 1366x768
reduced blanking
Note that there is a pixel clock limit, which means the highest supported mode is 1920x1200 at 60Hz with reduced blanking.

Which values are valid for my monitor?

Your HDMI monitor may support only a limited set of formats. To find out which formats are supported, use the following method:
  1. Set the output format to VGA 60Hz (hdmi_group=1 and hdmi_mode=1) and boot up your Raspberry Pi
  2. Enter the following command to give a list of CEA supported modes: /opt/vc/bin/tvservice -m CEA
  3. Enter the following command to give a list of DMT supported modes: /opt/vc/bin/tvservice -m DMT
  4. Enter the following command to show your current state: /opt/vc/bin/tvservice -s
  5. Enter the following commands to dump more detailed information from your monitor: /opt/vc/bin/tvservice -d edid.dat; /opt/vc/bin/edidparser edid.dat
The edid.dat should also be provided when troubleshooting problems with the default HDMI mode.

Custom mode

If your monitor requires a mode that is not in one of the tables above, then it's possible to define a custom CVT mode for it instead:
hdmi_cvt=<width> <height> <framerate> <aspect> <margins> <interlace> <rb>
Value Default Description
width (required) width in pixels
height (required) height in pixels
framerate (required) framerate in Hz
aspect 3 aspect ratio 1=4:3, 2=14:9, 3=16:9, 4=5:4, 5=16:10, 6=15:9
margins 0 0=margins disabled, 1=margins enabled
interlace 0 0=progressive, 1=interlaced
rb 0 0=normal, 1=reduced blanking
Fields at the end can be omitted to use the default values.
Note that this simply creates the mode (group 2 mode 87); in order to make the Pi use this by default, you must add some additional settings. As an example, the following selects an 800x480 resolution and enables audio drive:
hdmi_cvt=800 480 60 6
This may not work if your monitor does not support standard CVT timings.

Generic display options


Setting this to 1 pretends that the HDMI hotplug signal is asserted, so it appears that a HDMI display is attached. In other words, HDMI output mode will be used, even if no HDMI monitor is detected.


Setting this to 1 pretends that the HDMI hotplug signal is not asserted, so it appears that a HDMI display is not attached. In other words, composite output mode will be used, even if an HDMI monitor is detected.


Set to 1 to disable overscan.


Specifies the number of pixels to skip on the left edge of the screen. Increase this value if the text flows off the left edge of the screen; decrease it if there's a black border between the left edge of the screen and the text.


Specifies the number of pixels to skip on the right edge of the screen.


Specifies the number of pixels to skip on the top edge of the screen.


Specifies the number of pixels to skip on the bottom edge of the screen.


Specifies the console framebuffer width in pixels. The default is the display width minus the total horizontal overscan.


Specifies the console framebuffer height in pixels. The default is the display height minus the total vertical overscan.


Specifies the console framebuffer depth in bits per pixel. The default value is 16.
framebuffer_depth result notes
8 8bit framebuffer Default RGB palette makes screen unreadable
16 16bit framebuffer
24 24bit framebuffer May result in a corrupted display
32 32bit framebuffer May need to be used in conjunction with framebuffer_ignore_alpha=1


Set to 1 to disable the alpha channel. Can help with the display of a 32bit framebuffer_depth.


Displays a test image and sound during boot (but only over the composite video and analogue audio outputs) for the given number of seconds, before continuing to boot the OS as normal. This is used as a manufacturing test; the default value is 0.


Can be used to rotate or flip the screen orientation; the default value is 0.
display_rotate result
0 no rotation
1 rotate 90 degrees clockwise
2 rotate 180 degrees clockwise
3 rotate 270 degrees clockwise
0x10000 horizontal flip
0x20000 vertical flip
Note that the 90 and 270 degree rotation options require additional memory on the GPU, so these won't work with the 16MB GPU split.

Licence keys/codecs

Hardware decoding of additional codecs can be enabled by purchasing a licence that is locked to the CPU serial number of your Raspberry Pi.


Licence key to allow hardware MPEG-2 decoding, e.g. decode_MPG2=0x12345678.


Licence key to allow hardware VC-1 decoding, e.g. decode_WVC1=0x12345678.
If you've got multiple Raspberry Pis and you've bought a codec licence for each of them, you can list up to 8 licence keys in a single config.txt, for example decode_MPG2=0x12345678,0xabcdabcd,0x87654321. This enables you to swap the same SD card between the different Pis without having to edit config.txt each time.



Set to 1 to stop start.elf from filling in ATAGS (memory from 0x100) before launching the kernel.


The alternative filename on the boot partition to read the kernel command line string from; the default value is cmdline.txt.


The alternative filename on the boot partition to use when loading the kernel; the default value is kernel.img.


The memory address into which the kernel image should be loaded.


Set to 1 to load the kernel at the memory address 0x0.


Optional filename on the boot partition of a ramfs to load. More information is available here.


The memory address into which the ramfsfile should be loaded.


This specifies both the ramfs filename and the memory address to load it at; it performs the actions of both ramfsfile and ramfsaddr in one parameter. Example values are: initramfs initramf.gz 0x00800000. NOTE: This option uses different syntax to all the other options; you should not use a = character here.


The initial UART baud rate; the default value is 115200.


The initial UART clock frequency; the default value is 3000000 (3MHz).


The initial eMMC clock frequency; the default value is 100000000 (100MHz).


Wait for a given number of seconds in bootcode.bin before loading start.elf; the default value is 0.
This is particularly useful to insert a delay before reading the EDID of the monitor, which can help if the Pi and monitor are powered from the same source but the monitor takes longer to start up than the Pi. Try setting this value if the display detection is wrong on initial boot, but is correct if you soft-reboot the Pi without removing power from the monitor.


Wait for a given number of seconds in start.elf before loading the kernel; the default value is 1. The total delay in milliseconds is calculated as (1000 x boot_delay) + boot_delay_ms. This can be useful if your SD card needs a while to 'get ready' before Linux is able to boot from it.


Wait for a given number of milliseconds in start.elf, together with boot_delay, before loading the kernel. The default value is 0.


If set to 1, don't show the rainbow splash screen on boot. The default value is 0.

Device tree

There are several config.txt parameters related to device tree setup, and these are documented separately here.


NOTE: Setting any overclocking parameters to values other than those used by raspi-config will set a permanent bit within the SoC, making it possible to detect that your Pi has been overclocked. This was originally set to detect a void warranty if the device had been overclocked. Since September 19th 2012, you can overclock your Pi without affecting your warranty; for more information see the blog post on turbo mode.
The latest kernel has a cpufreq kernel driver with the "ondemand" governor enabled by default. It has no effect if you have no overclock settings; if you overclock, the CPU frequency will vary with processor load. Non-default values are only used when needed according to the governor. You can adjust the minimum values with the *_min config options, or disable dynamic clocking with force_turbo=1; for more information see here.
Overclocking and overvoltage will be disabled at runtime when the SoC reaches 85°C, in order to cool it down. You should not hit the limit, even with maximum settings at 25°C ambient temperature; for more information see here.

Overclocking options

Option Description
arm_freq Frequency of the ARM CPU in MHz. The default value is 700.
gpu_freq Sets core_freq, h264_freq, isp_freq, and v3d_freq together. The default value is 250.
core_freq Frequency of the GPU processor core in MHz. It has an impact on CPU performance, since it drives the L2 cache. The default value is 250.
h264_freq Frequency of the hardware video block in MHz. The default value is 250.
isp_freq Frequency of the image sensor pipeline block in MHz. The default value is 250.
v3d_freq Frequency of the 3D block in MHz. The default value is 250.
avoid_pwm_pll Don't dedicate a PLL to PWM audio. This will reduce analogue audio quality slightly. The spare PLL allows the core_freq to be set independently from the rest of the GPU, allowing for more control over overclocking. The default value is 0.
sdram_freq Frequency of the SDRAM in MHz. The default value is 400.
over_voltage CPU/GPU core voltage adjustment. [-16,8] equates to [0.8V,1.4V] with 0.025V steps; in other words, specifying -16 will give 0.8V as the GPU/core voltage, and specifying 8 will give 1.4V. The default value is 0 (1.2V). Values above 6 are only allowed when force_turbo or current_limit_override are specified; this sets the warranty bit.
over_voltage_sdram Sets over_voltage_sdram_c, over_voltage_sdram_i, and over_voltage_sdram_p together.
over_voltage_sdram_c SDRAM controller voltage adjustment. [-16,8] equates to [0.8V,1.4V] with 0.025V steps. The default value is 0 (1.2V).
over_voltage_sdram_i SDRAM I/O voltage adjustment. [-16,8] equates to [0.8V,1.4V] with 0.025V steps. The default value is 0 (1.2V).
over_voltage_sdram_p SDRAM phy voltage adjustment. [-16,8] equates to [0.8V,1.4V] with 0.025V steps. The default value is 0 (1.2V).
force_turbo Disables the dynamic cpufreq driver and minimum settings described below. Enables h264/v3d/isp overclocking options. The default value is 0. Enabling this may set the warranty bit.
initial_turbo Enables turbo mode from boot for the given value in seconds up to 60, or until cpufreq sets a frequency; for more information see here. This option can help with SD card corruption if the Pi is overclocked. The default value is 0.
arm_freq_min Minimum value of arm_freq used for dynamic frequency clocking. The default value is 700.
core_freq_min Minimum value of core_freq used for dynamic frequency clocking. The default value is 250.
sdram_freq_min Minimum value of sdram_freq used for dynamic frequency clocking. The default value is 400.
over_voltage_min Minimum value of over_voltage used for dynamic frequency clocking. The default value is 0.
temp_limit Overheat protection. This sets the clocks and voltages to default when the SoC reaches this value in Celsius. Setting this higher than the default voids your warranty; the default value is 85.
current_limit_override Disables SMPS current limit protection when set to 0x5A000020; it requires this unusual value to ensure that it doesn't get triggered accidentally. This can help if you're currently hitting a reboot failure when specifying a value for overclocking that is too high. For more information see here. Changing this option may set the warranty bit.


This enables dynamic clocks and voltage for the CPU, GPU core, and SDRAM. When busy, the CPU frequency goes up to arm_freq and down to arm_freq_min on idle.
core_freq/core_freq_min, sdram_freq/sdram_freq_min and over_voltage/over_voltage_min behave in a similar manner. over_voltage is limited to 6 (1.35V). Non-default values for the h264/v3d/isp frequencies are ignored.
Disables dynamic frequency clocking, so that all frequencies and voltages stay high. Overclocking of h264/v3d/isp GPU parts is allowed, as well as setting over_voltage up to 8 (1.4V). For more information see here.

Clocks relationship

The GPU core, h264, v3d, and ISP blocks all share a PLL and therefore need to have related frequencies. The CPU, SDRAM and GPU each have their own PLLs and can have unrelated frequencies; for more information see here.
The frequencies are calculated as follows:
pll_freq = floor(2400 / (2 x core_freq)) x (2 x core_freq)
gpu_freq = pll_freq / [even number]
The effective gpu_freq is automatically rounded to the nearest even integer; asking for core_freq=500 and gpu_freq=300 will result in the divisor of 2000/300 = 6.666 => 6 and so result in a gpu_freq of 333.33MHz.


Setting this to 1 will decouple a PLL from the PWM hardware. This will result in more hiss on the analogue audio output, but will allow you to set the gpu_freq independently of the core_freq.

Monitoring temperature and voltage

To view the Pi's temperature, type: cat /sys/class/thermal/thermal_zone0/temp. Divide the result by 1000 to get the value in Celsius.
To view the Pi's current frequency, type: cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_cur_freq. Divide the result by 1000 to get the value in MHz.
To monitor the Pi's PSU voltage, you'll need a multimeter to measure between the TP1 and TP2 power supply test points; more information is available in power.
It's generally a good idea to keep the core temperature below 70 degrees and the voltage above 4.8V. Note that some USB power supplies fall as low as 4.2V; this is because they are usually designed to charge a 3.7V LiPo battery, rather than to supply 5V to a computer. If your overclocked Raspberry Pi is getting hot a heatsink can be helpful, especially if the Pi is to be run inside a case. A suitable heatsink is the self-adhesive BGA (ball-grid-array) 14x14x10 mm heatsink, available from RS Components.

Overclocking problems

Most overclocking issues show up immediately with a failure to boot. If this occurs, hold down the shift key during the next boot which will temporarily disable all overclocking; this will allow you to boot successfully and then edit your settings.

Conditional filters

When a single SD card (or card image) is only being used with one Pi and one monitor, it's easy to simply set config.txt as required for that specific combination and keep it that way, amending only when something changes.
However, if one Pi is swapped between different monitors, or if the SD card (or card image) is being swapped between multiple Pis, a single set of settings may no longer be sufficient. Conditional filters allow you to make certain sections of the config file used only in specific cases, allowing a single config.txt to create different configurations when read by different hardware.

The [all] filter

This is the most basic filter: it resets all previously set filters and allows any settings listed below it to be applied to all hardware.
It's usually a good idea to add an [all] filter at the end of groups of filtered settings to avoid unintentionally combining filters (see below).

The [pi1] and [pi2] filters

Any settings below a [pi1] filter will only be applied to Pi 1 (A, A+, B, B+) hardware. Any settings below a [pi2] filter will only be applied to Pi 2 hardware.
These are particularly useful for defining different kernel, initramfs, and cmdline settings, as the Pi 1 and Pi 2 require different kernels. They can also be useful to define different overclocking settings for each, since they have different default speeds. For example, to define separate initramfs images for each:
initramfs initrd.img-3.18.7+ followkernel
initramfs initrd.img-3.18.7-v7+ followkernel
Remember to use the [all] filter at the end, so that any subsequent settings aren't limited to Pi 2 hardware only.

The [EDID=*] filter

When switching between multiple monitors while using a single SD card in your Pi, and where a blank config isn't sufficient to automatically select the desired resolution for each one, this allows specific settings to be chosen based on the monitors' EDID names.
To view the EDID name of a specific monitor, run the following command:
tvservice -n
This will print something like this:
You can then specify settings that apply only to this monitor like so:
This forces 1920x1080 DVT mode for this monitor, without affecting any other monitors.
Note that these settings apply only at boot, so the monitor must be connected at boot time and the Pi must be able to read its EDID information to get the correct name. Hotplugging a different monitor after boot will not reselect different settings.

The serial number filter

Sometimes settings should only be applied to a single specific Pi, even if you swap the SD card to a different one. Examples include licence keys and overclocking settings (although the licence keys already support SD card swapping in a different way). You can also use this to select different display settings even if the EDID identification above isn't possible for some reason, provided that you don't swap monitors between your Pis - for example, if your monitor doesn't supply a usable EDID name or if you're using composite output (for which EDID cannot be read).
To view the serial number of your Pi, run the following command:
cat /proc/cpuinfo
The serial will be shown as a 16-digit hex value at the bottom. For example, if you see:
Serial          : 0000000012345678
Then you can define settings that will only be applied to this specific Pi like so:
# settings here are applied only to the Pi with this serial
# settings here are applied to all hardware

Combining conditional filters

Filters of the same type replace each other, so [pi2] overrides [pi1], as it's not possible for both to be true at once.
Filters of different types can be combined simply by listing them one after the other, for example:
# settings here are applied to all hardware
# settings here are applied only if monitor VSC-TD2220 is connected
# settings here are applied only if monitor VSC-TD2220 is connected *and* on a Pi 2
# settings here are applied to all hardware
Use the [all] filter to reset all previous filters and avoid unintentionally combining different filter types.

This article uses content from the eLinux wiki page RPiconfig, which is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license

Slack pxeboot floppy install.

Caveat: Use at your own risk.

Though I use several versions of linux, I like to use Slackware on really old systems.  Generally those systems do not have cdrom and in some cases no usb. Slackare is so versatile that you can boot from just a floppy to install slackware via gpxe from the internet,  I did an install that way with 14.1 on a p1. Now to try this with slackware 14.2.  So far so good. You can do this on other versions of linux.

To me one of the most amazing things is to install linux from the internet instead of using local media. Generally if you wanted to do an install of linux, from the net, you would need a dhcp server and an tftp server with special settings. Gpxe gets around all those limitations. Quite often I will start a internet based install from a local web server. Now that the internet is slightly more dependable we can do an install from the host linux distribution sites. Today I will show you how to do it with Slackware 14.2.  More Information at etherboot.org.

The two files we really need are initrd.img and bzImage.  So it is a matter of finding these two files on the net specifically for Slackware 14.2. Once you have those two file locations, you can generate a script. To save time I just used the old script for Slackware 14.1 and went from there.

To use the script, you will need to create boot media.  In our case we will use a floppy.  To make the media, you want to go to romomatic,net.

You will want tp press the customize button to enter ion the script. Then enter your script and press get image. You will need a free floppy once you get the download. The you can use dd to copy the image to the disk.

#the script for slackware 14.2

dhcp any

initrd http://slackware.cs.utah.edu/pub/slackware/slackware-14.2/isolinux/initrd.img

chain  http://slackware.cs.utah.edu/pub/slackware/slackware-14.2/kernels/hugesmp.s/bzImage load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 rw printk.time=0 nomodeset SLACK_KERNEL=huge.s

Of course you can customize the script to your needs.

To test the script boot disk, I used Virtual box. Be sure to enable pae.

Saturday, July 30, 2016

Fm transmitters

Amazing the simple circuits that you can find on the internet.

Metal detector:

Audio transmitter based on same i.c.

More coming.

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Raspberry pi zero

Bought some of the Raspberry Pi Zeros for five dollars.  Was able to install the standard Raspian image on an mm card and boot up without problem. On the system I used I remotely logged into the Rpi via ssh so that I did not need a monitor. Changed the user password and shut down.

For the image you will need to to use a micro sd card for the image. The raspberry website has all the details how to do that.Used a regular sd card with a micro insert so that the usb to mmccard adapter would easily handle the image to the card.

There are two micro usb ports on the board so that one is for power and the other is for a regular usb connection. They are marked on the board. On the regular usb port, I hooked up an otg cable connected to a usb ethernet adapter. Raspian saw the ethernet adapter without any problem.

As for audio, you have to use the hdmi adapter, though to connect to a regular hdmi cable you will need a mini to standard adapter. So you might as well get  hdmi monitor. The old analog and composite ports are no longer available on the rpi zero. Thought there are solder points on the board so you can use discrete parts for analog audio and video.

Try these circuits at your own risk:


Now, as for the bottom two pins, the square one is TX (signal) and the circular one is ground.


The specs say the RPI Zero 1ghz cpu speed. That is only if you overclock the board otherwise it is only 700 mhz, As for the gpio, you will have to do all the soldering your self as there is no header.

All in all for $5 it is a heck of a deal. Just like using most linux boxes. The sky is the limit as there is a tremendous amount of software in the repo.

Remote access:

Suggested circuit for adding a wifi dongle. Use at your own risk.

You can also get adapter kits pretty cheap:

Also a good usb 2.0 hub and an otg cable makes it easy to add attachments without having to do any soldering.  Sometimes nicad batteries can make excellent power sources for the RPi.

Old fashion connection. An otg cable is needed to interface the two.

Little 5 dollar computer hooked up to the tv. doing an update in the background. The rpizero is the new  Commodore64
Could put the free Kodi software on it and have another appletv/roku like device for pennies. Need to make a case. An old game machine might work or just a cheap plastic case.

Sunday, July 10, 2016

Touchpad plus.


Touch pads good or bad are becoming so inexpensive that for the buck they are a better value than the lcd (liquid crystal displays) screens.  Also lcd's require interfacing. Just wanted something simple and elegant. So when thinking about making a portable device such as the Raspberry Pi, the touch pads had to be considered. Of course, other ways were considered also. For example you could use an an old black and white portable tv screen. Though portable and having it's own power source to power itself and the Raspberry Pi, they can be a bit bulky.

Then another choice was a bit less bulky and you had the advantage of having a dual purpose media device as a monitor. Yes a cd/dvd play could be considered if it has a least video in and a usb port for powering the Raspberry Pi.  As with the tv you will need to make a special case, but that is no big deal. 

The best choice it seemed to me would be to use a touch pad. But how to connect them both together. First you need the Raspberry Pi and it's own power source. There are lots of options there. If you are not in a remote place you, can just use a wall adapter. For connecting them, we will need to make a mini network.

While setting up the network, we will also want to install on the Raspberry Pi software to allow to connect to the tablet (or vice versa(,Using the Debian install Optionson the Raspberry Pi, you will first want to install two pieces of software. First if the remote desktop server known as xrdp and second is dnsmasq to delve out an ipaddress to the tablet.

$ sudo apt-get install xrdp dnsmasq

There is no real configuration needed for xrdp. As for dnsmasq, there is a bit of configuration. First you will need to set up a wifi dongle on the raspberry pi. Since everyone is different, you may have to adapt your setup. See https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/

Setting WiFi up via the command line

This method is suitable if you do not have access to the graphical user interface normally used to set up WiFi on the Raspberry Pi. It is especailly suited for use with a serial console cable if you don't have access to a screen or wired Ethernet network. Also note that no additional software is required; everything you need is already included on the Raspberry Pi.
Getting WiFi network details

To scan for WiFi networks, use the command sudo iwlist wlan0 scan. This will list all available WiFi networks along with other useful information. Look out for:  
ESSID:"testing". This is the name of the WiFi network.
IE: IEEE 802.11i/WPA2 Version 1. 
This is the authentication used; in this case it is WPA2, the newer and more secure wireless standard which replaces WPA1. This guide should work for WPA or WPA2, but may not work for WPA2 enterprise; for WEP hex keys see the last example here.
You will also need the password for the WiFi network. For most home routers this is located on a sticker on the back of the router. The ESSID (ssid) for the network in this case is testing and the password (psk) testingPassword.
Adding the network details to the Raspberry Pi

Open the wpa-supplicant configuration file in nano:

$ sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Go to the bottom of the file and add the following: network={ ssid="The_ESSID_from_earlier" psk="Your_wifi_password" }

In the case of the example network, we would enter: network={ ssid="testing" psk="testingPassword" }

Now save the file by pressing ctrl+x then y, then finally press enter.

At this point, wpa-supplicant will normally notice a change has occurred within a few seconds, and it will try and connect to the network. If it does not, either manually restart the interface with sudo ifdown wlan0 and sudo ifup wlan0, or reboot your Raspberry Pi with sudo reboot.

You can verify if it has successfully connected using ifconfig wlan0. If the inet addr field has an address beside it, the Pi has connected to the network. If not, check your password and ESSID are correct.
Once you have that working, you will need to set up dnsmasq. See http://computoman.blogspot.com/2015/01/dnsmasq.html

You will want to make the ipaddress range only ONE address to help keep the system secure.

Almost forgot, you will need to install and rdp client on the touch pad.


pi setup

Download the latest image

$ unzip 2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.zip
Archive:  2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.zip

You need to see what storage devices are available. so that you do not overwrite your main drives. Match the disk size to your card. It is sdc for us.

$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders, total 488397168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00027adf

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048   485255167   242626560   83  Linux
/dev/sda2       485257214   488396799     1569793    5  Extended
/dev/sda5       485257216   488396799     1569792   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 41.2 GB, 41174138880 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 5005 cylinders, total 80418240 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0005d7c7

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *        2048    77277183    38637568   83  Linux
/dev/sdb2        77279230    80416767     1568769    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5        77279232    80416767     1568768   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdc: 7985 MB, 7985954816 bytes
246 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1022 cylinders, total 15597568 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xa6202af7

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdc1            8192      122879       57344    c  W95 FAT32 (LBA)
/dev/sdc2          122880     6399999     3138560   83  Linux

$ sudo dd if=2015-05-05-raspbian-wheezy.img of=/dev/sdc

Make a used ip lister

 eddie@oedt01:~$ cat /home/eddie/bin/pingall.sh
for i in {1..254}
ping 192.168.1.$i -c1 -w1 -v | grep "icmp_req=1"

Some systems need a variant

 eddie@oedt01:~$ cat /home/eddie/bin/pingall.sh
for i in {1..254}
ping 192.168.1.$i -c1 -w1 -v | grep "icmp_seq=1"

$ chmod +x pingall.sh

$ ./pingall.sh
64 bytes from icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.557 ms
64 bytes from icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.694 ms
64 bytes from icmp_req=1 ttl=64 time=0.068 ms

$ ssh pi@
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is d4:7c:de:d5:60:21:8b:fe:8f:f6:b4:ad:28:71:0a:42.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
pi@'s password:
Linux raspberrypi 3.18.11+ #781 PREEMPT Tue Apr 21 18:02:18 BST 2015 armv6l

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.

NOTICE: the software on this Raspberry Pi has not been fully configured. Please run 'sudo raspi-config'

pi@raspberrypi ~ $

Select the first option so you can take full advantage of your card. Exit the program and then allow it to reboot.

Log back in as you did before.

pi@raspberrypi ~ $ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs           15G  2.4G   12G  18% /
/dev/root        15G  2.4G   12G  18% /
devtmpfs         87M     0   87M   0% /dev
tmpfs            19M  224K   18M   2% /run
tmpfs           5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs            37M     0   37M   0% /run/shm
/dev/mmcblk0p1   56M   19M   37M  34% /boot

Check out what space you have.

Run raspi-config again for changing other options that you might want to change.  You probably want to change your hostname and password for sure.

Bring the system up to date with:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade

$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

Now install the remote viewing server.

$ sudo apt-get install xrdp

See if you can attach to the pi. From a computer run your remote desktop viewer program. Set the ip with what you found earlier and use user will be pi.

 If you changed your password, you will need to use the new password here to log in.

 One neat thing about this is it saves you from having to purchase a monitor and hdmi cables for your pi.

You can exit out of the rdp software as we will go back to the command line. Now we get into the more advanced stuff. We to get into some network configuration. Let's see what alread is there.

Before installing wireless nic

$ sudo aptitude install wicd-curses

$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
        wireless-essid robotland
        wireless-mode Managed
# wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

 $ sudo cat /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev

 $ iwconfig
lo        no wireless extensions.

eth0      no wireless extensions.

After installing wireless nic

$ iwconfig
wlan0     unassociated  Nickname:"<WIFI@REALTEK>"
          Mode:Managed  Frequency=2.412 GHz  Access Point: Not-Associated  
          Retry:off   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0

lo        no wireless extensions.

eth0      no wireless ext

What's around you?

$ sudo iwlist wlan0 scan
wlan0     Scan completed :
          Cell 01 - Address: AC:5D:10:F5:51:A9
                    Protocol:IEEE 802.11bg
                    Frequency:2.442 GHz (Channel 7)
                    Encryption key:on
                    Bit Rates:54 Mb/s

Reset connection.

$ sudo ifdown wlan0

$ sudo ifdown wlan0

or sudo reboot

Setup a router to see the pi picks up and ipaddress.

Now comes the fun part.

$ sudo apt-get install dnsmasq

Now you need to edit the dnsmasq.conf file fpr the setup

main gateway


Powering your RPi

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Emergency cabling tools.


Wire cutters
Flathead screwdriver
Phillips head screwdriver
Wooden clothespin
pencil sharpener
cable rj-45 end

Had to drill a pilot hole to get the pencil sharpener screw to go into the clothespin.

Securing the cable was a bit more tricky.