Most computers started with a command line interface. Then eventually migrated to a pictured interface
Every computer now has some kind of desktop environment that allows to to interact with the system. The first gui (graphical user interface.) first came from Xerox.
Not going to show every desktop, but I will show the ones I think important. Then came the copy cats such as apple with the Mac and Microsoft with windows. You had to use their gui environment.
Linux did not lock you into the desktop, but their were two major variations that sort of stems from the original environments. Gnome was a sort of gui that was like the apple interface and then there was kde which stemed from the mswindows interface.
Then things soft of changed. Developers thought that a tiled interface would be easier I call them the Fisher-Price interfaces.
Not fond of the tiled environment as you seem to lose some control over the desktop. To each his own. There is one last desktop that per se does not use a gui but does emulate open windows for a text only environment. To my knowledge the Microsoft does not support this environment,
Gui desktops tend to make an operating system bloated, DVTM is perfert for lower frugal systems. It's your choice. Well maybe not on Microsoft products.